One of the most defining aspects of academic research writing is a demonstration of research-oriented findings. Referring to credible sources and data is made possible through the concept of citations. In this blog, we’ll equip you with citation knowledge across multiple different formats and aid in understanding the purpose of each one.
The purpose of citations
When you search the definition of the term ‘citation’ on google, you’re met with the following description: a quotation from or reference to a book, paper, or author, especially in a scholarly work. Citing sources has multiple purposes, the primary focus is to give credit to the original author. When writing a specialised research paper, the author will cite external sources when referencing the material in their own work to establish strength, transparency and authority within their research.
This positions their work in a specific context to depict their stance in the larger discussion. Citations also serve as an efficient way to provide references to others wanting to explore the subject or even use them within their own academic research papers. Overall, citing establishes an important roadmap in the research process.
Why are there different types of citations?
Different citation formats are utilised across different disciplines. While it might be convenient to have one universal citation format, it is not possible because different fields focus on unique information within their respective research; this requires citation formats to be tailored to the field’s primary focus.
The APA (American Psychological Association) citation format is utilised in social sciences like psychology, sociology, anthropology as well as education. Moreover, the MLA (Modern Language Association) citation format is largely used within humanities and the Chicago citation format is applied in the fields of Business, History & Fine Arts. Finally, the Harvard citation format is primarily used in education.
Citing in APA Referencing Format
APA (American Psychological Association) referencing style is a widely used referencing style in social science disciplines, such as psychology, sociology, and education. The style is characterised by the use of in-text citations, which typically include the author's last name and the year of publication of the source being cited.
The APA style requires a detailed reference list, which includes all sources referenced in the text. The reference list is arranged alphabetically by the author's last name, and each entry provides comprehensive information about the source, including the title, publisher, and publication date.
Citing in MLA Referencing Format
MLA (Modern Language Association) referencing style is a popular method of citing sources used in academic writing, particularly in the humanities. The style is characterised by the use of in-text citations, which typically include the author's last name and the page number(s) of the source being cited. The MLA style also requires a comprehensive list of Works Cited at the end of the document, which includes all sources referenced in the text. The Works Cited page is arranged alphabetically by the author's last name or, if there is no author, by the first word of the title.
Citing in Harvard Referencing Format
Harvard style referencing, also known as author-date referencing, is a widely used referencing system that originated from Harvard University. It is a method of acknowledging sources of information in academic writing, by citing the author's last name and the year of publication in the text. Harvard referencing style also requires a detailed list of references at the end of the document, arranged alphabetically by the author's last name, which includes all the sources cited in the text. This style of referencing is used in many disciplines, including the social sciences, humanities, and natural sciences.
Citing in Chicago Referencing Format
The Chicago referencing format is commonly used in the fields of Business, History and Fine Arts. It offers two main citation styles: the notes and bibliography style and the author-date style.
The notes and bibliography style involves the use of footnotes to provide brief citations within the text and a corresponding bibliography at the end of the document. In contrast, the author-date style involves in-text citations that include the author's last name and the date of publication. A comprehensive reference list is also required at the end of the document.
Citations and referencing bring attention to details within each format. While it is a time-consuming section to fulfill in an academic paper, it’s also an important skill to have as a researcher, to be able to dissect other research papers and build an authoritative and strengthened academic paper with your own research. Understanding which citation format is best suited for your discipline is equally important; this citation pocket guide covered the 4 commonly utilised citation styles which are APA, MLA, Harvard and Chicago.
Discover an array of academic resources now on Zendy where you can read through research worry-free because we offer automatic citations across all our books, journal articles, proceedings and more.
How You Can Use Zendy to Benefit Your Research
What is Zendy? The Zendy academic library is designed to accompany users on their journey of discovery across a broad spectrum of disciplines. It is an intuitive and user-friendly platform that accommodates a vast collection of academic research covering all major fields. Developed in close collaboration with researchers, students, institutions, and publishers, Zendy aims to democratise knowledge and make it accessible to all. Zendy was established with the vision of making academic content more accessible and affordable for individuals worldwide, regardless of their field of study, area of interest or geographic location. Welcome to Zendy! When you log in, you’ll be met with recommended articles. Using Zendy To Your Advantage Zendy offers a wide selection of academic research. Discover peer-reviewed journal articles, e-books and proceedings across disciplines; from science and technology to arts and humanities, Zendy has it all. The academic library provides access to full-text articles and books from various leading publishers, making it a tool students, professors and avid readers can benefit from. What Makes Zendy Stand Out? With an aim to democratise access, Zendy offers two unique solutions to users. The first is Zendy Plus, a subscription service giving users unlimited access to premium academic content for the monthly price of a single research paper. Secondly, Zendy Open - a free open access research library packed with research tools to make content easier to navigate and discover. With a single Zendy Plus subscription; you can access academic content across numerous fields from leading publishers like Taylor & Francis, Wiley, Emerald, EBSCO, Sage and many more. Zendy Plus is available in UAE, KSA, Bahrain, Jordan, Nigeria, Morocco, and Algeria. To facilitate Zendy’s vision of democratising access and promoting research-based solutions and decision-making, the subscription offers access to millions of academic articles in over 45 languages in an active effort to make academic material inclusive and accessible. Zendy Plus allows users to access a vast collection of premium academic research for the monthly price of a single research paper. Easy Citations Researchers and students know that generating citations and reference lists are time-consuming tasks. On Zendy, we’ve simplified how you can get your citations done. It only takes one click to access citations in multiple formats as shown below. Simply click “Cite” to get an accurate citation for the academic material you’re referencing Once clicking on “cite” you’ll have this window on your screen and you may pick the citation format you’d like to use from the top right drop-down menu Advanced filters Zendy’s comprehensive filters will effortlessly refine your research discoverability process. Your searches can be filtered by author, publication, title, H-index score, Scientific Journal Rank (SJR), International Standard Serial Number (ISSN), International Standard Book Number (ISBN), and keyword. To utilise Zendy’s advanced filters, click on the arrow within the search bar on the right. From this drop-down menu, you may select the filter you’d like to apply and proceed from there Favourites This particular feature serves as a wish list for research you find intriguing. You can essentially add articles to read either later or come back to for quick references. Save time scrolling by simply just clicking on the ‘thumbs up’ icon at the bottom right of the research you’re interested in. To add a research paper to your favourites, simply click the thumbs-up icon located on the bottom right. Access your favourites by logging in and selecting ‘My Library’ from the drop-down menu on the top right or simply click ‘My Library’ located to the right of the Zendy icon at the top By selecting ‘Favourites’ at the top of the page, you can access all the research you’ve liked and saved here. Read History This feature collates every piece of research you have accessed on Zendy. In case you forget to add some academic research to your reading list, you now have the option to go into your read history and locate key research easily. Just like how you accessed your Favorites list, you’ll need to go to ‘My Library’ from either one of the options shown above. Click on ‘Read History’ and easily access all the academic research you’ve previously read or visited. Reading Lists Customise your very own reading list now on Zendy. Arrange your academic research based on genre, publication or simply your area of interest. Pick up right where you left off across articles, e-books, proceedings and much more, you’ll never need to search again for a source you know you’ll come back to. From either the drop-down menu on the top right or the option on the top left, you need to select ‘My Lists' From this page, you’ll need to select the ‘Create List’ Option to organise your reads. Simply name your list and save it, you can now begin adding academic research papers to this list. Once the list has been created, you can begin adding academic content to it by clicking on the ‘add to list’ on the bottom right. You may then select the list you’d like to segregate the research paper into and click ‘done’. Your academic research material has been successfully saved to your desired list for you to access at any time you need it. Dive into research papers across many disciplines while taking advantage of Zendy’s amazing features and discover millions of e-books, journal articles, proceedings and more on Zendy now.
Let's Analyze What Makes a Good H-Index Score
Understanding H-Index The H-index is a metric that measures an author’s productivity by the number of publications that have published their work and the impact of the work based on the number of citations their research receives. In general, authors with a higher h-index score will have produced more research and therefore published more content which, to their peers, creates their reputation of credibility. This quantitative metric was brought about in 2005 by Argentinian-American professor of physics Jorge E. Hirsch to analyse publication data. Finding an author’s H-index There are multiple platforms on which you may find an author’s H-index score. To name a few, Google Scholar, Scopus, Web of science etc. However, in this blog, we’ll take you through the process of locating an author’s H-index on google scholar as shown below. Visit Google Scholar Enter the author’s name in the search bar If a profile exists for the author, it will appear at the top of the search results, click the author's name, and their profile page will open. View their h-index on the right side of the screen. Calculating H-Index Score The H-index measures the importance, significance, and impact of research contributions. To calculate an author’s H-index, you’d need to create a list of all publications in which the author has been published and rank them in descending order of the citations his/her work has received. Understanding the H-index of an author is an indication of their credibility, so that brings us to the question: What is a good H-index score? J. E. Hirsch (2005) observes that Noble Prize winners in physics have an average H-index score of 30, this highlights that Noble prize winners are selected with a scientific body of research and a history of contributional impact. This proved that successful scientists do need a good h-index score. Hirsch stated that after 20 years of research; an H-index score of 20 was good, 40 was outstanding and 60 was truly exceptional. Does the H-index score evaluate an author in all important aspects? Undoubtedly, it is appealing to have a singular value that measures an author's productivity and impact. Many committees have opted the H-index as their metric of choice as well. Bordons and Costas (2007) stated that the key advantage of the H-index metric is that it measures the scientific output of a researcher with objectivity. This plays a vital role in making decisions about promotions, fund allocation and awarding prizes. However, there are suggestions that H-index does not take other important variables into account. According to Enago Academy (2022), a higher H-index score does not indicate better quality of research. The article further elaborates that the H-index score does not account for an author’s career stage, research and journal quality and contribution to the scientific community. The score also has potential unintended negative impacts; for example, a younger researcher may not challenge a researcher with a high h-index score and researchers aiming for a higher h-index may only pursue popular fields of science. Furthermore, BiteSizeBio (2021) states that the H-index score does not take into account the number of authors on a research paper. If a paper has 1 author with about 100 citations, this researcher deserves more recognition than a paper that had 10 authors with similar citations. The fluctuation of the H-index score The H-index score does not decrease unless the paper is redacted or deleted. Older papers may continue to gain new citations, and the h-index can potentially increase indefinitely, even after the researcher has stopped actively publishing. What is the difference between H-index and the journal impact factor? The Journal Impact Factor metric is used to evaluate the importance of a journal within its respective field or discipline. In simpler terms, it measures the frequency of citations the average article within this journal receives. On the contrary, the H-index metric is used to measure the productivity and quality of an author’s publications. While they are both measures of research quality, they measure different aspects of research and can therefore not be compared. To conclude, having a good H-index score is impressive. However, every author’s research contrasts with that of another. There are many more aspects to investigate when evaluating a researcher. Discover millions of e-books, journal articles, proceedings and more on Zendy.
New Academic Research Feature: Optimise Your Workflow With Reading Lists!
At Zendy, we aspire to make access and discovery of academic research more seamless. We’re excited to announce a suite of new features to the platform: reading lists, read history, and favourites. The process of academic research is often a complex cycle involving large volumes of reading, interpretation, re-reading, and then ultimately shaping a hypothesis. To simplify the cycle of reading and saving academic research, we've developed reading lists and a read history function to help students, researchers, and professionals organise research by project. You can also favourite key articles you want to read later while you search through journals and proceedings. Create personalized reading lists This reading list can be customized entirely by you! You get to arrange your articles, e-books, journals, and so much more, however you may like. You no longer have to search again for what you need; you can pick up right where you left off. Create your reading list tailored to your preferences. Access your read history Read something 2 weeks ago and didn’t add it to your reading list? We’ve got you covered because you can now access your read history! Your read history collates every piece of academic research that you have accessed on Zendy. Favourite research articles while you search Have you ever wanted to create a wish list but for research you come across? You can now do that with our latest favourites feature. You can essentially add articles to read either later or come back to. Quickly find all your favorite research and save time scrolling. As signatories to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) compact, this feature, along with a host of new platform enhancements, is aimed at simplifying the process of research. We've developed our online research library to promote greater inclusivity in the academic spectrum, with over 45 languages and millions of articles from researchers around the world. Explore our range of new tools and academic resources that are in line with our commitment to SDG-4, which is quality education. Use our reading list feature and discover new research now on Zendy.