Open AccessHeterogeneity of mesenchymal stem cells: characterization and application in cell therapyOpen Access
PublisherInnovation Publishing House Pte. Ltd.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown great potentials in regenerative medicine for their low immunogenicity, multilineage differentiation potential, and extensive sources. However, the heterogeneity of MSCs limits their clinical application and industrial prospects. In this review, we introduced the heterogeneity of MSCs in terms of their applications, sources, functions, and surface markers; discussed the major factors leading to the heterogeneity in MSCs; summarized the main approaches to study the MSC heterogeneity, and addressed the clinical challenges resulting from heterogeneity. Finally, we proposed the strategies that might be used to purify the MSCs and to eliminate the heterogeneity of MSCs for their standardized production and reliable clinical application.
Subject(s)biology , computational biology , gene , genetic heterogeneity , genetics , immune system , immunogenicity , immunology , mesenchymal stem cell , microbiology and biotechnology , phenotype , regenerative medicine , stem cell
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