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open-access-imgOpen AccessIdentification of bioactive compounds in gambier (Uncaria gambir) liquid by-product in West Sumatra, Indonesia
Author(s)
Akhis Soleh Ismail,
Yose Rizal,
Armenia Armenia,
Anwar Kasim
Publication year2021
Publication title
biodiversitas
Resource typeJournals
PublisherMBI & UNS Solo
Abstract. Ismail AS, Rizal Y, Kasim A. 2021. Identification of bioactive compounds in gambier (Uncaria gambir) liquid by-product in West Sumatra, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 22: 1474-1480. Gambier liquid by-product (GLB) is a by-product of gambier production, alleged to contain similar flavonoid compounds. Currently, there is no available information on the active components of GLB. This study, therefore, aims to identify the active compounds in GLB using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and screen for active compounds using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupled the mass spectrometry time of flight (LC-MS/MS QTOF) positive (ESI+) and negative (ESI-) ionization modes. The results of the functional-group identification spectra showed 5 peaks, and the GLB was characterized by a hydroxyl group (OH) at 3423.22 cm-1 wavelength, indicating a phenolic compound. Meanwhile, CO2 was identified at 2360.92 and 2344.84, C=O at 1654.43 and C-H stretching at 1400.26 cm-1 wavelength. LC-MS/MS screening in ESI+ mode identified that the GLB contained 22 active compounds, while the ESI- mode confirmed that the GLB had 14 active compounds. Based on these two ionization modes, nine compounds, quercetin 3-glucoside, gallocatechin-4beta-OI, (-)-epi-afzelechin, quercetin-3-O-(2G-α-Lrhamnosyl)-rutinoside, kaempferol-3-O-β-rutinoside, quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside, epigallocatechin 3-O-P-coumarate, quercetin 3-O-(6''-acetyl-galactoside) 7-O-rhamnoside and quercetin 3-(4''-acetylrhamnoside) 7-rhamnoside were discovered. Therefore, GLB was discovered to contain 27 active compounds that all of these compounds are flavonoid group, and some of these substances are also present in the gambier product.
Subject(s)antioxidant , chemistry , chromatography , electrospray ionization , flavonoid , fourier transform infrared spectroscopy , high performance liquid chromatography , kaempferol , mass spectrometry , organic chemistry , physics , quantum mechanics , quercetin , stereochemistry
Language(s)English
SCImago Journal Rank0.257
H-Index14
ISSN1412-033X
DOI10.13057/biodiv/d220351

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