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Premium Sediment and phosphorus transfer in overland flow from a maize field receiving manure
Withers P.J.A.,
Bailey G.A.
Publication year2003
Publication title
soil use and management
Resource typeJournals
PublisherBlackwell Publishing Ltd
Abstract. The transfer of suspended sediment (SS) and phosphorus (P) in overland flow from 30 m 2 field plots receiving either nil, surface‐applied or incorporated manure (slurry) were monitored to determine the vulnerability of land cropped to continuous forage maize to diffuse pollutant transfer in winter runoff. In the absence of slurry, P export was dominated by particulate forms, with up to 1 t SS ha −1 and 0.75 kg total P ha −1 collected from an individual storm event. Background concentrations of P in soluble (<0.45 μm) form were large ( c . 0.5 mg L −1 ) by eutrophication standards due to the previous build‐up of soil P, and largely independent of SS concentrations. Largest P exports (representing up to 23% of the slurry P applied) were measured when dairy slurry (3–13% dry solids) was surface‐applied. The P mobilized from the slurry accounted for up to 60% of total plot P export, with the majority occurring in a soluble bioavailable form during the first storm event. Initial P concentrations in runoff were in proportion to the amount of slurry P applied and significantly lower where rainfall was delayed after application. In one year, splitting the slurry application (3 × 10 kg ha −1 ) reduced total P export by 25% compared to a single surface application (30 kg P ha −1 ). In two years, incorporation of slurry, either by ploughing, or by tine cultivation, reduced the amount of overland flow by 50%, and the amount of P export by up to 60%, compared to the surface‐applied slurry treatments. Timeliness of slurry spreading to avoid periods of wet weather and simple cultivation of maize fields after harvest are practical and effective options to minimize SS and P transfer in land runoff from maize fields. The results also draw attention to the need to grow maize, and apply slurry to fields with a low P loss risk.
Subject(s)agronomy , biology , chemistry , ecology , environmental engineering , environmental science , eutrophication , geology , geotechnical engineering , hydrology (agriculture) , manure , nutrient , organic chemistry , paleontology , phosphorus , plough , sediment , slurry , surface runoff , zoology
SCImago Journal Rank0.709

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