Open AccessOverexpression and activation of colony‐stimulating factor 1 receptor in the SIV/macaque model of HIV infection and neuroHIVOpen Access
Irons Derek L.,
Kuroda Marcelo J.,
Abstract In the present study, we investigated whether colony‐stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) is expressed on brain macrophages and microglia in the human and macaque brain and whether it is upregulated and activated after lentivirus infection in vivo and contributes to development of encephalitic lesions. We examined, using multi‐label and semi‐quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy, the protein expression level and cellular localization of CSF1R in brain tissues from uninfected controls and SIV‐infected adult macaques with or without encephalitis and also from uninfected controls, HIV‐infected encephalitic subjects and virally suppressed subjects. In the normal uninfected brain, CSF1R protein was detected only on microglia and brain macrophages but not on neurons, astrocytes or oligodendrocytes. Microglia constitutively expressed CSF1R at low levels, and its expression was largely unchanged in non‐encephalitic and encephalitic animals. Brain macrophages, including perivascular macrophages (PVMs), expressed higher levels of CSF1R compared to microglia. Interestingly, we found significantly increased expression of CSF1R on the infected PVMs and lesional macrophages in the brains of encephalitic macaques. Moreover, the per cell expression of CSF1R determined by its mean pixel intensity (MPI) correlated positively with the MPI of SIV Gag p28 in SIV‐infected PVMs. Using phosphorylated CSF1R at tyrosine residue 723 and phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 at tyrosine reside 694 as markers for CSF1R activation, we found selective activation of CSF1R signaling in infected brain macrophages in encephalitis. We also found colocalization of CSF1R and its ligand CSF1 in PVMs and lesional macrophages in the brains of encephalitic macaques and humans. Notably, elevated brain CSF1R expression was found in virally suppressed subjects. These findings point to opportunities for developing a specific approach targeting infected brain macrophages, with several brain‐penetrant CSF1R inhibitors that are available now, in order to eliminate central nervous system macrophage reservoirs, while not affecting resting uninfected microglia and PVMs that show no CSF1R activation.
Subject(s)activator (genetics) , biochemistry , biology , central nervous system , downregulation and upregulation , gene , immunology , inflammation , macaque , microbiology and biotechnology , microglia , neuroglia , neuroscience , receptor , simian immunodeficiency virus , virology , virus
SCImago Journal Rank1.986
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