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Premium Nitrous oxide emissions and nitrogen use efficiency in wheat: Nitrogen fertilization timing and formulation, soil nitrogen, and weather effects
Author(s)
Thilakarathna Shakila K.,
HernandezRamirez Guillermo,
Puurveen Dick,
Kryzanowski Len,
Lohstraeter Germar,
Powers LeighAnne,
Quan Ningyu,
Tenuta Mario
Publication year2020
Publication title
soil science society of america journal
Resource typeJournals
PublisherSoil Science Society of America
Abstract Improving N fertilization in croplands could minimize soil emissions of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and mitigate climate change. This study investigated the effects of spring vs. fall N applications of conventional vs. enhanced‐efficiency N fertilizers (EENFs) on N 2 O emissions and N use efficiency in spring wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) over 2.5 yr in Alberta, Canada. Fertilizers were anhydrous ammonia and urea and the EENF formulations included urease and nitrification inhibitors and a polymer coating. We measured a fertilizer N 2 O emission factor of 0.31 ± 0.04%. Irrespective of N fertilizer and timing options peak N 2 O emissions were evident following soil thawing and major rainfalls. Because most of the annual N 2 O emissions were associated with soil thawing, spring‐applied N emitted half the N 2 O of the fall‐applied N during the second study year ( P  < .001). Conversely, the opposite was observed for the first study year when overall N 2 O emissions were 36% larger for spring‐ than fall‐applied N ( P  = .031) as major rainfalls occurred shortly after the spring N fertilization. Nevertheless, within this first study year, EENFs significantly reduced N 2 O emissions (by 26% on average; P  = .019), with a tendency for 11% higher grain yield across springtime EENFs than for conventional fertilizers. Concomitantly, spring‐applied N doubled the fertilizer N recovery efficiency in the same year ( P  = .023). The soil at the study site inherently had high N availability (NH 4 and NO 3 ) and this probably moderated the beneficial effects of EENFs on N 2 O emissions and grain yields. Results suggest that spring EENFs can mitigate the risk for N 2 O emissions while sustaining high yields even under scenarios with high availability of native soil N.
Subject(s)agronomy , biology , chemistry , engineering , environmental science , fertilizer , human fertilization , mechanical engineering , nitrification , nitrogen , nitrous oxide , organic chemistry , spring (device)
Language(s)English
SCImago Journal Rank0.836
H-Index168
eISSN1435-0661
pISSN0361-5995
DOI10.1002/saj2.20145

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