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Premium Bulk C, H, O, and fatty acid C stable isotope analyses for purity assessment of vegetable oils from the southern and northern hemispheres
Spangenberg Jorge E.
Publication year2016
Publication title
rapid communications in mass spectrometry
Resource typeJournals
Rationale The carbon, hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope composition ( δ 13 C, δ 2 H, and δ 18 O values) of plants and their products is linked to photosynthetic fractionation, environmental factors and agricultural practices. Therefore, they contribute to determining the purity of commercial vegetable oils and may provide information on their geographical origin. Methods Maize, olive, sunflower, groundnut, soybean and rice oils differing in sites of growth in the southern and northern hemispheres were characterized by bulk oil stable isotope ratios ( δ 13 C bulk , δ 2 H bulk , and δ 18 O bulk values), fatty acid (FA) concentrations and δ 13 C FA values using elemental analysis/isotope ratio mass spectrometry, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, gas chromatography/flame ionization detection and gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Principal component analysis was applied to examine the inherent structure of the data. Results The δ 13 C bulk values of maize oils (−18.4 to −14.9 ‰) are typical for C 4 plants, and those of olive (−30.2 to −28.2 ‰), sunflower (−30.2 to −29.2 ‰), groundnut (−29.3 ‰), soybean (−30.6 ‰), and rice (−34.5 ‰) oils are typical for C 3 plants. The δ 2 H bulk values vary from −161 to −132 ‰ for maize oils and −171 to −109 ‰ for C 3 oils. The δ 18 O bulk values of all oils vary between 15.2 and 38.9 ‰. The major δ 13 C FA differences (>5 ‰) within plant species render the inter‐C 3 ‐species comparison difficult. These differences are explained in terms of variations in the lipid biosynthetic pathways and blend of vegetable oils of different FA composition and δ 13 C FA values. The samples from the southern hemisphere are generally enriched in 13 C compared with those from the northern hemisphere. Differences between the southern and northern hemispheres were observed in δ 2 H ( p  < 0.001) and δ 18 O bulk ( p  = 0.129) values for all C 3 oils, and in δ 13 C 18:1 ( p  = 0.026) and δ 18 O bulk ( p  = 0.160) values for maize oils. Conclusions The results of this study show that combining bulk and molecular stable isotope ratios, FA compositions and their statistical analysis helps the characterization of the geographic origin of oils. This methodology can be used to detect and source impurities in valuable vegetable oils commercialized worldwide. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Subject(s)agronomy , biology , chemistry , chromatography , ecology , environmental chemistry , food science , fractionation , gas chromatography , isotope , isotope analysis , isotope ratio mass spectrometry , isotopes of carbon , mass spectrometry , physics , quantum mechanics , stable isotope ratio , sunflower , sunflower oil , total organic carbon , δ13c
SCImago Journal Rank0.528

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